The rise of Islamic radicalisation has been mirrored by the rise of extreme right-wing groups, or the so-called “alt-right”. The media focuses heavily on the former, but tends to neglect the latter. They are both part of the same cycle of fear, therefore deserve equal attention and analysis.
What is the alt-right?
The alt-right movement started in the US as a mainly online phenomenon. Its proponents believe that existing Western governments are fatally flawed. They criticise democracy and rule of the people by the people. But this in itself is not the biggest issue. The main facet of alt-right ideology is its obsessive focus on race, specifically on white supremacy and the belief that different races ‘should be kept apart’.
In fact, white supremacy is a more fitting description for alt-right ideology. It manifests clearly in Donald Trump’s claim that the US should build a wall between itself and Mexico. His arguments to ban Muslims from entering the country also fit the narrative. Alt-right proponents in the US support Trump because they believe he represents the ultimate in free speech. He’s the equivalent of sending a wrecking ball crashing into the establishment, tearing down the political correctness that the alt-right despise so much.
According to NPR, the alt-right movement mostly consists of young white men “who see themselves first and foremost as champions of their own demographic. However, apart from their allegiance to their “tribe,” as they call it, their greatest points of unity lie in what they are against: multiculturalism, immigration, feminism and, above all, political correctness.”
Donald Trump is the most prominent figurehead of the alt-right, with his rhetoric of hatred and division. The growth of this movement, which is especially rampant on social media, represents a worrying trend towards fascist viewpoints becoming mainstream.
Those heady, hopeful days when Barack Obama was elected now feel like a distant memory. It is as if the rise of the alt-right is a backlash, driven by simmering outrage built up over eight years of having a black man with a Muslim name in the White House.
Where did it come from?
Although extreme right-wing ideas of various stripes have been around in America (and to a lesser extent the UK and Europe) for many years, they have stayed largely outside the mainstream. But the Trump campaign has given extreme right ideas greater legitimacy, presenting an opportunity for their supporters to bring their views into the public sphere. Indeed, Trump’s chief strategist, Stephen Bannon, is also the editor of the conservative website Breitbart News, which he referred to as “the platform for the alt-right”.
How is alt-right ideology different to mainstream conservatism?
Alt-right followers tend to see conservatives as weak, believing their support for racist and anti-Semitic ideas is not strong enough. The alt-right coined the term “cuckservative” (‘conservative’ + ‘cuckold’) to disparage mainstream right-wingers. The term refers to white Christian conservatives who support Jews, minorities and non-whites, supposedly ‘prioritising’ their interests over those of whites. A focus on identity is a key feature of the alt-right, specifically about how white identity is seen in relation to (and in opposition to) that of the so-called ‘other’.
What are its key messages, and how does it spread them?
The alt-right is still a loose movement made up of various strands, but its ideology and key messages are clear. They fixate on promoting white identity; this forms the core of the alt-right ideology. Alt-right supporters want to ‘preserve European-American (i.e. white) culture’ and reject any form of multiculturalism, pluralism or globalism. They claim to promote traditional white Christian values. Many in the alt-right support the use of propaganda for subjects such as black and immigrant crime, in their mission to ‘protect’ whites from potential ‘ethnic cleansing’.
Like their fellow extremists in ISIS, many alt-right members are young and internet-savvy. They know how to use the power of the digital world to amplify their messages. Alt-right proponents have a noisy online presence and frequently use trolling as a way to get their message across. In fact, some justify their trolling as a necessary response to perceived ‘bullying’ by liberals, or SJWs (‘social justice warriors’) as they have been dubbed.
What threat does the alt-right pose?
The rising popularity of the alt-right represents a wider trend towards right-wing social attitudes that has been spreading over the Western world in recent years, driving the rise of Trump and the Brexit vote. The risks stem from deepening of social divisions, increasing hate (especially directed against Muslims), and causing racist ideas to become mainstream. This promotes a rise in hate crime and increased victimisation of vulnerable members of society.
At the same time, the increase in aggressive right-wing attitudes promotes the exact same kind of social division that groups like ISIS seek to ignite. Fearful and divided societies turn against one another, producing disillusioned individuals seeking a cause greater than themselves. Extremists are not only brown men joining ISIS, but also white ones joining the alt-right.
How can the alt-right be counteracted?
Liberals often feel they are superior to the ‘barbaric’ alt-right. Both groups could benefit from gaining a better understanding of what drives the other side. These days people tend to live in bubbles, surrounded by those with similar world views. Social media amplifies this effect, excluding all dissenting viewpoints from the user’s immediate social media feed. But we need to understand what drives people to certain views. If they believe white identity is at stake; what has caused them to think so? Are their views rooted in a genuine fear of losing their identity? How can this be mitigated without harming others?