There’s something odd about the Prime Minister’s Facebook page.
Underneath every post, especially those about Brexit, are hundreds of responses. This isn’t unusual for the page of a public figure, but the style of the responses didn’t ring true.
They are all very similar; short utterances of praise for Boris Johnson, repeating words and phrases such as ‘brilliant’, ‘fantastic’, and ‘support Boris 100%’. Each comment is festooned with Facebook’s emojis, mainly representing positive sentiments of ‘like’, ‘love’ and ‘laugh’.
This behaviour feels odd. I’m not denying that a lot of genuine people do support Johnson, but it’s suspicious for so many to consistently comment on his posts in this distinctive and repetitive fashion.
Let’s contrast this with the page of his predecessor, Theresa May, specifically her Brexit-related posts. Here we see a very different scenario.
Responses to May’s posts tend to be a lot more varied, in content, tone and length. Some disagree with her. Others support her. But most are expressed in more depth and sophistication of language than the short repetitive replies on Johnson’s.
In short, the responses on May’s page look far more likely to be ‘organic’ (i.e. produced by real people behaving naturally) than the majority of those on Johnson’s. It’s possible that Johnson’s page is using artificial amplification techniques, which may include fake followers.
Facebook locks its data down tight, so it’s hard to run further analysis to determine for certain whether the Johnson supporters are part of an organised campaign.
But we can draw from previous examples. Donald Trump used fake Facebook followers during the US presidential campaign. Researchers discovered that over half of the followers on his page came from countries known as hubs for Facebook ‘like farms’.
These ‘farms’ are often found in developing nations such as the Philippines and India, where the dollar stretches a long way. They offer customers the opportunity to buy fake Facebook likes to create the impression of popular support.
As well as likes, customers can purchase fake engagement, usually in the form of comments. This may explain the unusual commenting activity on Johnson’s page.
For political purposes, this type of artificial campaign is an important tool, because it generates the illusion of grassroots support for a particular figure or issue. It even has a name: astroturfing.
Illusion becomes reality when the fake engagement intersects with genuine users, who are more likely to engage with seemingly popular posts thanks to the effect of ‘social proof’ – a psychological phenomenon where people tend to follow the actions of the masses.
This can be leveraged to great effect in social media environments, where user attention spans are low, knee-jerk reactions are prevalent, and ‘likes’ are an addictive form of currency.