Month: November 2017

Can ‘Online Surges’ Drive Long Term Attitude Change?

It comes as little surprise to learn that today’s wave of anti-Muslim online sentiment is being led by specific Islamophobic organisations, and channelled through public figures such as Tommy Robinson and Pamela Geller. And over the last three years, a spate of incidents tied to Muslim perpetrators, including vehicle attacks and knifings, have added fuel to the fire and, in the minds of some, justified their anti-Muslim viewpoints. Indeed, one often notices a sense of warped, self-righteous ‘public duty’, among online commenters who bash Muslims and link them ceaselessly to terrorism. After all, aren’t terrorists a danger to our society; public enemy number one? Surely it’s acceptable to point that out. When looking through the lens of online news and social media, especially in the unbridled comments sections, the casual observer may come to feel that the majority of Britons hate, fear, and dehumanise Muslims.

But that particular picture of public opinion could be misleading. The true makeup of this climate of hate may come as more of a surprise. A soon-to-be-published report (and numerous bloggers and journalists) claims that many of the social media accounts spreading anti-Muslim sentiment online aren’t who they claim to be. Many aren’t even human, while others don’t represent ‘organic’ human opinions. Here we have the bots and paid sock-puppets. One is generated by algorithms, the other operates from a pre-existing messaging playbook. Attempts to engage them in dialogue often feel like arguing with a brick wall, or an extremely resilient ideologue; impervious to reason of any kind. Oddly, people often describe ardent Trump supporters in this way.

In terms of the climate around Muslims and Islam, these media manipulators use a range of tools to try and shift public opinion on a wide scale. A lot of psychological devices come into play here, for example the bandwagon effect. In this, people tend to do something just because others are doing it; such as blindly adopting a popular opinion around a contentious social or political issue. It’s a tool that’s been used for decades in political campaigns and commercial advertising. When bots and sock-puppets masquerade as ordinary British and American citizens (cleverly leveraging their profiles to appear so) who hate Islam, they are relying on the bandwagon effect to encourage real citizens to adopt similar views. When it looks like so many people are talking badly about a certain group or person, it’s easy to assume the rumours might well be true. The bot armies also latch onto people like Tommy Robinson to amplify his messages, and add their own, whenever a relevant story breaks.

Unfortunately, terrorist attacks have become a critical asset in a giant influence ops campaign. Just as PR stunts drive content marketing traffic in the commercial world, so attacks (or rumours of attacks) also drive anti-Muslim ‘brand-building’ in the world of organised Islamophobia. It’s an interesting symbiotic relationship that would merit further study. The prime goals of the campaign appears to be driving wedges into society, creating an atmosphere of fear and turning groups against one another. Persuasion, whether by means of disinformation or fact, has attitude change as its end goal. A range of psychological theories purport to explain the processes behind it, but for now it’s more important to focus on effects. Whoever is masterminding these influence ops wants to shift the pendulum and create a new anti-Muslim normal in public opinion. They are using every tool at their disposal to do so, including false amplification, echo chambers, and visual disinformation.

But is the campaign working? To find out, we need to measure subtle shifts in public sentiment over a span of years, and then find out how to tie them to anti-Islam messaging campaigns. Of course, results are likely to be skewed by certain factors. One could be the mainstream British media, in particular the Express and Daily Mail, where coverage of all things immigration, refugees and Islam often teeters on the brink of disinformation, especially in the ways in which topics are spun. Specific incidents, especially of visual disinformation, such as the Muslim woman at Westminster, could be used as starting points to track associated sentiment online. Fearful knee-jerk reactions to terrorist attacks are to be expected, but broader long-term shifts in sentiment are harder to track. What’s more, they are far more insidious, corroding society from the inside out.

Disinformation, Influence Ops and the Humble Blog

Just a few days ago, Wired Magazine published an article revealing that the ongoing Russian disinformation campaign also involved a number of long form blog posts published on Medium.

In this post, I want to talk about why this seemingly new move from Russian info ops is actually not surprising at all and makes perfect logical sense in an overall content strategy. Blogs play a key role in an effective strategy, with content posted on Twitter, Facebook and other social platforms acting as ‘outposts’, all emanating from the blog, which is placed at the heart.

Some of the Medium bloggers had tens of thousands of followers. They published content around predictable topics such as ‘race, science and politics, indoctrination on US college campuses’ – and that good old chestnut, ‘lies from Hillary Clinton’. The fake blogger identities were carefully crafted to appeal to their target audience, with bios claiming to be conservative, Christian, and family-oriented.

This approach reflects that used on Twitter by many bot and sock puppet accounts; designed to instil a sense of community between the fake accounts and their Trump-supporting human target audiences. It’s an attempt to create an in-group, define its identity in opposition to the ‘out-group’ and build trust between its members. This makes the messages seem more believable in the target audience’s minds.

The most famous and prolific disinformation blogger of all is ‘Jenna Abrams’, the Kremlin operated account that fooled Americans for a number of years. From 2014 onwards, the ‘freewheeling American blogger’ who just happened to push a return to segregation and decried ‘PC culture run amok’ had plenty of time to build a significant target audience. The account was perfectly placed to propel divisive messages into the mainstream media, becoming an influential voice just in time for Trump’s election in 2016.

How did this fake identity become so influential? Firstly, ‘Abrams’ touted a lot of controversial opinions. Pushing openly xenophobic and racist opinions riled up a lot of journalists and celebrities on social media, which helped to boost Abram’s messages and help them gain more traction and visibility. Many of her tweets and posts went viral. When something goes viral it’s quite common for it to reach the attention of the mainstream media, and this is what happened with Abrams. The Abrams account was featured in many of the biggest media outlets and this in turn fed back into her following, attracting more people to view, share and comment on her content.

Conventional marketing wisdom has always claimed blogging as a highly effective way to build a personal or professional brand. During its early days, a whole host of blogging gurus and advice sites sprung up, such as Problogger, Neil Patel and Chris Brogan. They taught people how to harness the power of online content to define their brand and attract better professional opportunities. Indeed, many Internet celebrities such as Tim Ferriss, Gala Darling and Ash Ambirge of the Middle Finger Project came into existence thanks to the power of blogging.

I did it myself; spending around four years building up a professional identity in the field of nation brand strategy, by creating content about the topic and publishing it online. This, combined with a lot of social media outreach and networking, plus a bit of well-placed SEO, brought me a modest range of opportunities. They ranged from an invitation to keynote at an international conference, to an interview with CNN and a number of consulting opportunities based on my supposed expertise. This expertise was solely built through blogging.

My nation branding blog wasn’t pushing disinformation. But nevertheless it’s another case in point that shows just how easy it is to build a believable personal brand and gain an audience purely through online content creation. With this in mind, it doesn’t surprise me in the least that Russia’s expert info ops strategists are using blogging as part of their disinformation campaigns. I’d wager we can expect others like these in the future.

What’s more, the line between a personal blog and a professional news source has become blurred. Anyone can set up a website and promote their own content to the world. If it attracts enough viewers and enough engagement, then the site will start to gain value and become a trusted source. With enough traction, a simple blog might even turn into something like Breitbart, with the influence to significantly affect public opinion and bring toxic debates into the mainstream.